Negative Emotions: cognitive regulation and implications in management and marketing
Human beings are the most emotionally rich species, and there are countless emotions. Positive emotions lead to high efficiency and better performance, and negative emotions make us less efficient, act worse and reluctant to build relationships. Thus, the study on management of employees’ emotions and optimization of the marketing tactics seems to be of special importance.
Study 1 focused on the negative emotion regulation and depression intervention. It examined whether the broadened attentional scope would affect people’s sad or depressed mood with two experiments, enlightened by the meaning of“seeing the big picture” and the broaden-and-build model (Fredrickson, 1998, 2001). A laboratory-based experiment and a daily training experiment combined suggest a robust role of broadened attentional scope (“看开点”) in relieving negative emotions and even mildly depressed mood in the long run. The emotion intervention method has practical implications to manage employees’ mood and therefore enhance working performance.
Study 2 focused on another common-seen emotion, anxiety. People differ in the degree to which they feel anxious in a situation that requires them to reciprocate or when they anticipate such a situation. This study introduces the construct of reciprocity anxiety to capture this individual difference and distinguish it from other variables. We develop an 11-item scale to measure two components of reciprocity anxiety and find that reciprocity anxiety can predict (1) consumers' avoidance behavior toward businesses that may obligate them to reciprocate; (2) consumers' eagerness to repay a benefit provided by businesses; as well as (3) consumers’ intentions to make future visits to businesses that employ reciprocity relationship-building tactics. This study suggests that if a firm wants to employ reciprocity-based tactics to establish bonding with its customers, it is probably best to give consumers a quick opportunity to reciprocate at low or no cost.